When you start using a new cooking technique or technology, a thermometer can be very helpful. As you become more familiar with what you are doing and using, you will find yourself using it less.
The core temperatures listed below will help you cook your dishes to perfection.
Meat, fowl and fish
Lamb and beef:
Medium Rare: 55-60°C
Well done: 70°C
Hotdogs and pre-cooked sausages: 65-75°C
Raw sausage: 72°C
Chicken and turkey (boneless):72°C
Chicken and turkey (bone-in):82°C
Fish: 52°C, with the exception of monkfish (48-50°C) and tuna fish (32-50°C)
Bread and baked goods
If you aren’t sure if the bread is ready, allow it to reach an internal temperature of 98°C. Virtually all breads will be ready at that point.
White wheat bread: 92°C
Wholegrain bread: 96°C
Vegetables and eggs
Potatoes 94°C – 96°C
You will find that some of these temperatures are below the recommended minimum temperatures that those in the hospitality and food industries must maintain when keeping cooked food hot. That is because this is is the temperature required to kill the most dangerous pathogens. It is a very good rule of thumb for this particular purpose.
However, it does not automatically mean that food at lower temperatures will be harmful. Anyone who has eaten a fresh apple or properly prepared sushi, sashimi, beef tartare or carpaccio will know this. In fact, some ingredients (particularly certain fish and meats) will be ruined if heated above 65°C. The key is to pick healthy ingredients, keep them fresh and prepare them correctly. That’s all there is to it.